The Blue Ridge Parkway – Part 2 of 2 – Quest for Hickey’s Tree-Clubmoss — 2017-09-02

The subject matter for this post, Part 2 of 2, is quite limited and will probably appeal to only a few of you, but you never know. So that you are prepared, the subject matter is quite “geeky”, botanically speaking. As I mentioned in Part 1 of 2, my good friend, Alan Cressler had asked if I could point him to one of our little-known clubmosses, Dendrolycopodium hickeyi or Hickey’s tree-clubmoss. I was happy to oblige. Please join our adventure as we search an area along the Blue Ridge Parkway in western North Carolina for this denizen of the Appalachian Mountains.

But first, a little background: Lycopodiaceae or the family of clubmosses has always interested me. In fact, it was my passion before becoming acquainted with Orchidaceae. I was struck by their primitive nature and how they seemed to occupy a special niche in the natural order of things.

According to the Virginia Native Plant Society, “The common name ‘clubmoss’ is based on the premise that at first glance these plants resemble mosses (mosses are bryophytes and thus, non-vascular plants), and because they often have club-like structures [sporangia] that produce spores. Clubmosses are all perennial evergreen plants with numerous small leaves. Individual plants in many species are connected by horizontal stems that run above ground (runners) or below ground (rhizomes); the actual roots are rather shallow. None of the clubmosses are flowering plants, but all are vascular plants with an interesting strategy of releasing spores at a life stage that few people see—outside of a science lab.

Clubmosses or Lycophytes evolved some 410 million years ago as one of the earliest groups of vascular plants (plants with special tissues xylem and phloem to conduct water and food, respectively, in this group of plants). Some 300-plus million years ago, tree forms of both clubmosses and horsetails along with ferns dominated the great coal swamps of the Carboniferous geological period. Tree forms of tree clubmosses that once reached heights of 100 feet have left an excellent fossil record of the woody tissue of tree forms.”

Worldwide, there are 10 to 15 genera and 350 to 400 species of clubmosses. The following represents those species found in the Southeast:

Southeastern Clubmosses:

Dendrolycopodium hickeyi Hickey’s tree-clubmoss
Dendrolycopodium obscurum Common tree-clubmoss

Diphasiastrum digitatum Common running-cedar/pine
Diphasiastrum tristachyum Ground-cedar, blue running-cedar

Huperzia appalachiana Mountain fir clubmoss
Huperzia lucidula Shining clubmoss, shining firmoss
Huperzia porophila Rock clubmoss

Lycopodiella alopecuroides Foxtail clubmoss
Lycopodiella appressa Southern bog clubmoss
Lycopodiella caroliniana Slender clubmoss
Lycopodiella cernua Stag-horn clubmoss
Lycopodiella prostrata Feather-stem clubmoss

Lycopodium clavatum Running clubmoss

Phlegmariurus dichotomus Hanging clubmoss

This blog report will be focused, particularly, on the Dendrolycopodium or tree-clubmoss species. To give you some basis of visual reference, here is a shot of the most prevalent tree-clubmoss in our area, Dendrolycopodium obscurum or Common tree-clubmoss:

Common tree-clubmoss Common tree-clubmoss

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